The purpose of the current study was to provide both additional evidence of the psychometric properties of the TIPSA by examining reliability and validity coefficients, and to add to the empirical evidence for the application of betrayal trauma theory outside the context of complex and/or historical trauma. It was hypothesized that internal-consistency coefficients for the TIPSA would exceed 0.70; the TIPSA and the PTSD Checklist for DSM 5 (PCL-5) would be significantly positively correlated; the TIPSA and the Composite Codependency Scale (CCS) would not be significantly correlated; and that neither Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) nor Benevolent Childhood Experiences (BCE) scores would be significantly correlated with, or have a significant effect on TIPSA or PCL-5 scores. This study was conducted using anonymous survey data from192 female participants who self-identified as partners of sex addicts. Participants completed the TIPSA, PCL-5, CCS, ACE, and BCE measures. All reliability estimates for the TIPSA were above 0.70, as were all total-scale reliability estimates for the additional measures. Correlation between the TIPSA and PCL-5 produced a Pearson's r of 0.851 (p = 5.541 E-55), which indicated a large effect size. Correlations with additional measures produced statistically significant, yet small to weak, effect sizes (CCS: r = 0.292; ACE: r = -0.173; BCE: r = 0.244). Based on study results, there appears to be sufficient evidence to establish convergent validity of the TIPSA as a measure of trauma symptoms. Moreover, statistical evidence indicates only a weak relationship between the TIPSA and the CCS, thus establishing divergent validity of the TIPSA. Finally, neither the BCE nor the ACE was strongly correlated with the TIPSA, which adds to the empirical evidence for utilizing betrayal trauma theory outside the context of complex trauma, and also serves to provide additional evidence for divergent validity of the TIPSA.



College and Department

David O. McKay School of Education; Counseling Psychology and Special Education



Date Submitted


Document Type





statistical validity, posttraumatic stress disorder, codependency, sexual addiction



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Education Commons