A widely employed instructional design approach, the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation) model, has been one of the most popular and well documented instructional design models (Wilson, Jonassen, and Cole, 1993) for decades. Despite its widespread use, Thiagarajan, a leading instructional technologist, asserts that ADDIE, as an instructional design approach, is comparable to an outdated 1950's manufacturing model (Zemke, 2002). Since the 1950's, manufacturing has evolved, focusing initially on reducing inspection or evaluation costs and later on shifting these cost improvements throughout the organization. Just as manufacturing models and their application have evolved, service operations models such as instructional design models and especially their application are evolving. This dissertation reviews these changes in manufacturing models and associated service operations models in order to examine how these changes have informed instructional design models such as ADDIE and their usage in practice by those attempting to design conditions for learning and to create associated learning objects.

In order to better understand how this shift may be applied to both theory and practice in instructional design, this dissertation uses an exploratory case study methodology to examine best practices in the inspection/evaluation process employed during the development of courses. This methodology reflects procedures used in a major study (Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2000). They followed a three-step process, which included a comprehensive literature review, the identification of subjects that "have substantial experience and are providing leadership in distance education." (p.9), and surveying leaders.

In similar fashion, during the first phase of the study reported in this research, quality management and instructional design literature is reviewed. In the second phase, the case study subject, the Center for Instructional Design at a major university is selected. In the third phase, instructional design practices used at the Center were studied and areas for reducing inspection/evaluation costs were identified.

Principles and methods surmised from the literature reviews and the case study research are presented along with application examples from the case study. These principles and methods illustrate how ADDIE has evolved and continues to be a viable model for the creation of instruction.



College and Department

David O. McKay School of Education; Instructional Psychology and Technology



Date Submitted


Document Type





Instructional design, evaluation, quality management, ADDIE model, inspection