In order to avoid the occurrence of early-age damage, cement-treated base (CTB) materials must be allowed to cure for a period of time before the pavement can be opened to traffic. Trafficking of a CTB before sufficient strength gain has occurred can lead to marring or rutting of the treated layer. The specific objectives of this research were to examine the correlation between Clegg impact values (CIVs) determined using a heavy Clegg impact soil tester and rut depths measured in newly constructed CTB and subsequently establish a threshold CIV at which rutting should not occur.The experimental work included field testing at several locations along United States Highway 91 near Smithfield, Utah, and laboratory testing at the Brigham Young University (BYU) Highway Materials Laboratory. In both the field and laboratory test programs, ruts were created in CTB layers using a specially manufactured heavy wheeled rutting device (HWRD). In the field, ruts caused by repeated passes of a standard pickup and a water truck were also evaluated. The collected data were analyzed using regression to identify a threshold CIV above which the CTB should not be susceptible to unacceptable rutting. From the collected data, one may conclude that successive wheel passes each cause less incremental rutting than previous passes and that CTB similar to the material tested in this research should experience only negligible rutting at CIVs greater than about 35. The maximum rut depth measured in either field or laboratory rutting tests was less than 0.35 in. in this research, probably due to the high quality limestone base material utilized to construct the CTB. In identifying a recommended threshold CIV at which CTB layers may be opened to early trafficking, researchers proposed a maximum tolerable rut depth of 0.10 in. for this project, which corresponds to a CIV of approximately 25. Because a CIV of 25 is associated with an acceptably minimal rut depth even after 100 passes of the HWRD, is achievable within a reasonable amount of time under normal curing conditions, and is consistent with earlier research, this threshold is recommended as the minimum average value that must be attained by a given CTB construction section before it can be opened to early trafficking. Use of the proposed threshold CIV should then ensure satisfactory performance of the CTB under even heavy construction traffic to the extent that the material properties do not differ greatly from those of the CTB evaluated in this research.



College and Department

Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Civil and Environmental Engineering



Date Submitted


Document Type





CTB, cement-treated base, early-age, rutting, HWRD, CIV, Clegg Hammer, CIST, Clegg impact soil tester, aggregate road base, road base