Ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) makes it possible to use very small particles (< 2 µm) as packing materials to provide high column efficiencies. Results from a careful comparison of small porous and nonporous particles show that when the particle size is small enough (< 2 µm), both porous and nonporous particles give excellent performance, and the differences in column efficiencies between porous and nonporous particles become insignificant. Columns packed with bare diamond particles could separate small molecules, especially polar molecules, however, severe tailing occurred for less polar compounds. The polybutadiene coated diamond particles gave greater retention and better separation of small molecules compared to bare particles, although no improvement in column efficiency was observed. Changes in surface bonding of thermally hydrogenated diamond particles was achieved by chemical modification using various organic peroxides with or without reagents containing long carbon chain functional groups. It appears that the alkyl groups were attached onto the diamond surface with limited coverage. LC experiments did not demonstrate good separation; however, changes in LC behavior were observed. A repetitive solvent programming approach was successfully applied to the analysis of a continuous sample stream in microbore LC. Each analysis cycle consisted of three steps: pseudo-injection, elution and rinse. In the pseudo-injection step, elution with a non- or poor-eluting solvent produced a concentrated sample plug due to on-column focusing. Factors influencing peak symmetry, resolution and analysis cycle length were investigated. Quantitative analysis of a continuous sample stream is possible under certain operating conditions. Electric field gradient focusing (EFGF) devices with distributed resistor substrates could focus proteins in the separation channel, however, the focused bands were not stable, and the repeatability was poor due to the formation of bubbles and pH gradient in the separation channel. Both fiber-based and porous glass capillary-based planar EFGF devices with changing cross-sectional area (CCSA) channels were constructed and evaluated with the aid of a home-made scanning laser-induced fluorescence detection system. The fiber-based CCSA EFGF devices gave poorer performance compared with glass capillary based devices. Porous glass capillary-based EFGF devices could focus single proteins and separate mixtures of two to three proteins.



College and Department

Physical and Mathematical Sciences; Chemistry and Biochemistry



Date Submitted


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ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography, continuous sample stream, electric field gradient focusing, UHPLC, EFGF, stationary phase, liquid chromatography