Objectives. This study reanalyzed data from Burlingame and colleagues’ (2018) randomized controlled trial on the effect of adding Group Questionnaire (GQ) to Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45) feedback. These data were assessed for the feedback effect using the amount of GQ alerts in one session reported by the group member to track change in GQ subscales as a measure of reversing therapeutic relationship failure.Methods. 374 participants engaged in 58 psychotherapy groups. Every participant provided GQ measurements after every group session. These GQ measurements formed ‘person-session units’ representing whether or not each type of alert was present following each group meeting. Person-session units showing one, two, and three or more GQ alerts were selected for analysis. The GQ subscales of positive bond (PB), positive work (PW), and negative relationship (NR) were tracked over the following two sessions using hierarchical linear models (HLMs) to correct for group membership and analyze slopes of change between GQ feedback and no-feedback conditions.Results. Insignificant results were shown in condition by session interactions for every GQ subscale following every specified amount of co-occurring GQ alerts. These results contrast with Burlingame and colleagues’ (2018) findings that half of all condition by session interactions shown were significant using GQ change and status alerts to trigger analyses.Conclusions. The results of this study do not appear to better discriminate the effect of adding GQ to OQ feedback for group leaders. Thus, it does not appear that group leaders can better reverse the tide of relationship failure in psychotherapy groups when there are specific numbers of GQ alerts presented to them versus the alert types offered in GQ feedback reports.



College and Department

Family, Home, and Social Sciences; Psychology



Date Submitted


Document Type





group questionnaire, mental health, psychotherapy, outcome questionnaire, relationship failure