Acoustic Physical Modeling has emerged as a newer musical synthesis technique. The most common form of physical modeling synthesis in both industry and academia is digital waveguide synthesis. Commercially available for the past thirteen years, the top synthesizer manufacturers have chosen to include physical modeling synthesis in their top of the line models. In the area of audio quality testing, the most common tests have traditionally been group listening tests. While these tests are subjective and can be expensive and time-consuming, the results are validated by the groups' proper quality standards. Research has been conducted to evaluate objective testing procedures in order to find alternative methods for testing audio quality. This research has resulted in various standards approved by the International Telecommunication Union. Tests have proven the reliability of these objective test methods in the areas of telephony as well as various codecs, including MP3. The objective of this research is to determine whether objective test measurements can be used reliably in the area of acoustic physical modeling synthesis, specifically digital waveguide synthesis. Both the Perceptual Audio Quality Measure (PAQM) and Noise-To-Mask Ratio (NMR) objective tests will be performed on the Karplus-Strong algorithm form of Digital Waveguide synthesis. A corresponding listening test based on the Mean Opinion Score (MOS) will also be conducted, and the results from the objective and subjective tests will be compared. The results will show that more research and work needs to be done in this area, as neither the PAQM nor NMR algorithms sufficiently matched the output of the subjective listening tests. Recommendations will be made for future work.



College and Department

Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Technology



Date Submitted


Document Type





computer, music, PAQM, NMR, waveguide synthesis, MOS



Technology Emphasis

Information Technology (IT)