Introduction: Instrumented gait analysis and inverse dynamics are commonly used in research and clinical practice to calculate lower extremity joint kinetics, such as power and work. However, multisegment foot (MSF) model kinetics have been limited by ground reaction force (GRF) measurements. New technology enables simultaneous capture of plantar pressure and shear stress distributions but has not yet been used with motion capture. Integrating MSF models and pressure/shear measurements will enhance the analysis of foot joint kinetics. The purpose of this study was to develop methodology to integrate these systems, then analyze the effects of speed on foot joint kinetics. Methods: Custom software was developed to synchronize motion capture and pressure/shear data using measured offsets between reference frame origins and time between events. Marker trajectories were used to mask pressure/shear data and construct segment specific GRFs. Inverse dynamics were done in commercial software. Demonstrative data was from 5 healthy adults walking unshod at 3 fixed speeds (1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 m/s, respectively) wearing retroreflective markers according to an MSF model. Plantar shear forces and ankle, midtarsal, and first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint kinetics were reported. Speed effects on joint net work were evaluated with a repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Plantar shear forces during stance showed some spreading effects (directionally opposing shear forces) that relatively were unaffected by walking speed. Midtarsal joint power seemed to slightly lag behind the ankle, particularly in late stance. Net work at the ankle (p = 0.024), midtarsal (p = 0.023), and MTP (p = 0.009) joints increased with speed. Conclusions: Functionally, the ankle and midtarsal joints became more motorlike with increasing speed by generating more energy than they absorbed, while the MTP joint became more damperlike by absorbing more energy than it generated. System integration appears to be an overall success. Limitations and suggestions for future work are presented.



College and Department

Life Sciences; Exercise Sciences



Date Submitted


Document Type





motion capture, plantar pressure, plantar shear, plantar mask, motion capture, force partition, instrumented gait, energetics



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Life Sciences Commons