Bimetallic Catalysis is an emerging field of study that uses two metals to cooperatively perform organic transformations. These metals can serve to activate or bind substrates in order to increase the rate and selectivity of reactions. This work first describes the synthesis and utilization of six new chiral, titanium-containing phosphinoamide ligands. These Lewis acidic ligands withdraw electron density from an active palladium center to induce chirality and increase the rate of allylic amination of hindered, secondary N-alkyl amines. X-ray quality crystals were grown for each ligand and completed the allylic amination of hindered secondary amines in minutes whereas other non-titanium-containing ligands produced trace product. Although enantioselectivity was low initially, through a dynamic kinetic resolution enantioselectivity was increased over time, reaching 53% enantioselectivity. The second type of bimetallic catalysis discussed is dinuclear Pd(II) and Pd(I) catalysis. These dimers were built on a 2-phosphinoamide ligand scaffold and present interesting molecular structure and unique reactivity. These dimers were found to perform tandem arylketone coupling to produce disubstituted naphthalene products under oxidative conditions. It is proposed that the Pd(II) dimer undergoes oxidative addition to produce a Pd(III) dimer which subsequently produces an aryl-ketone intermediate. This process is made possible by the cooperativity of the two palladium centers which enable the formation of a Pd(III) dimer, circumventing the need for the high energy Pd(IV) oxidation state. Oxidative conditions then allows coupling and cyclization of a second ketone to form the naphthalene product.

College and Department

Physical and Mathematical Sciences



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bimetallic catalysis, organic synthesis, heterodimer, homodimer, allylic amination, naphthalene