This thesis is comprised of two studies. The objective of the first study was to find the frequency response and stiffness of the biceps brachii muscle group during recovery from exercise induced damage and to determine whether these data could be used to track muscle recovery by correlating changes in the frequency response with changes in muscle stiffness. Stiffness moduli were collected using Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) which were then applied to a proportional first mode frequency analysis. Data were collected for the muscle stiffness and frequency response for fifteen subjects (25.6 +- 4.5). By comparing the proportion of the square root of the SWE results, the variation in stiffness showed a less than 2 Hz change in first mode resonance for the control group. Frequency response results for the control group agreed with the modified SWE results and the proportion analysis. SWE results for the damage protocol group showed an average increase of 4 Hz. Frequency response results for the damage protocol group were sorted into three categories: three subjects had a change in frequency of peaks of at least 4 Hz in the positive direction; four subjects had an increase in amplitude, but no change in frequency of peaks; three subjects showed mixed responses like fewer resonance peaks, variable amplitudes, changes in peak bandwidth. This research allowed for the documentation of the in-vivo frequency response of the biceps brachii muscle. We believe that the frequency response of a muscle group may be used in the future to evaluate recovery from exercise induced damage. Lessons learned were also recorded for helping future studies in their efforts using an SLDV with human body testing.The second study focused on finding the effects on the surface velocity of tissue above and below a region of the lower leg wrapped in an elastic band when excited by an external source. Ten male subjects between the ages of 18-25 were seated in a chair with one foot placed on a vibrating platform. Two excitation frequencies were separately applied while three points along the leg were measured. A repeatability analysis, using results without the leg wrap, showed a 6.5%, 2.5%, and 10.5% variance in the x-, y-, and z-directions respectively, applying a 20 Hz frequency. With a 40 Hz frequency, the variations were 24%, 23.8%, and 28.4% respectively. A change in displacement of +38% and +10% occurred above the knee in the x-direction with 40 Hz and in the y-direction with 20 Hz, respectively. A change in displacement of -20% occurred below the knee in the x-direction with 20 Hz. A change in displacement of -24% occurred below the wrap location in the y-direction with 40Hz. With a confidence interval of 93%, surface velocity of the tissue located above the wrap increased, while the surface velocity of the tissue below the wrap decreased.



College and Department

Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Mechanical Engineering



Date Submitted


Document Type



Frequency Response, Shear-wave Elastography, skeletal muscle, exercise-induced muscle damage, recovery, elastic modulus, stiffness