Male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) against women remains as a pervasive and detrimental issue both in the United States and globally. Researchers, counselors, and others often develop psychological measures to help understand the causes of IPV in an effort to prevent this issue from occurring. Debate still persists within IPV research as to the definitive factors that contribute to the perpetration of IPV. The socio-feminist perspective remains as the predominant theoretical basis that drives IPV research and understanding. Despite this, no psychological measure grounded in this theory that predicts IPV perpetration proclivities has been developed and validated to date. The purpose of the current project was to develop and validate a psychological measure that predicts a likelihood to physically abuse a female intimate partner among heterosexual men – the Likelihood to Physically Abuse (LPA) scale. The development of which followed the methods of previously developed and validated measures of likelihood to rape and likelihood to sexually harass. Two studies were conducted that utilized two, independent and samples of adult, English-speaking American men. Study I involved a review of the literature to develop the LPA scale and initial internal reliability testing. Two hundred men were recruited using Qualtrics and were administered the LPA scale online. In Study II, three hundred men were recuited using Qualtrics and were administered the LPA scale along with other measures related to male-perpetrated IPV online. The purpose of the second study was to further test the internal reliability of the LPA scale and test the construct and external validity of this measure. The results from both studies demonstrated good internal reliability and initial evidence for good construct validity of the LPA scale. The LPA scale was concluded to show promising reliability and validity. However, the external validity results require further investigation. Implications for future IPV research and applications, and limitations are discussed.



College and Department

Family, Home, and Social Sciences; Psychology



Date Submitted


Document Type





intimate partner violence (IPV), IPV proclivities, scale development and validation, socio-feminist perspective



Included in

Psychology Commons