Children with language impairment (LI) often demonstrate increased levels of withdrawal, specifically the reticent and solitary-passive subtypes. Although it is recognized that there are several subtypes of withdrawal, the relationship between withdrawal and children with LI is complex and unclear. The aim of this study was to examine items on the Teacher Behavior Rating Scale (TBRS) to better understand the nature of withdrawal in children with LI. A factor analysis of TBRS scores of 355 participants was conducted to ensure that individual items on each subscale were measuring the same construct. An invariance analysis was also performed to ensure items were equally valid for both groups. Finally, a Pearson chi-square test was performed to see which items had the greatest power to separate typical and atypical children. Factor analysis confirmed that items on each subscale grouped together. All four reticence items were invariant, however only 3 of the 5 solitary-passive items were invariant across groups. Item analysis of the Reticence Subscale revealed that participants showed the greatest differences in items related to on-looking, unoccupied, and fearful behavior. Item analysis of the Solitary Passive Subscale revealed an increase in behavior related to a preference for solitary play. In accordance with previous work, children with LI displayed higher levels of both reticence and solitary-passive withdrawal than their typical peers. This study confirms the validity of using the TBRS as a tool to investigate the complex relationship between language and reticent behavior in future research.
College and Department
David O. McKay School of Education; Communication Disorders
BYU ScholarsArchive Citation
Coombs, Emma Maille, "Measuring Subtypes of Withdrawal in Children with Language Impairment" (2017). All Theses and Dissertations. 6706.
language impairment, withdrawal, reticence, solitary-passive withdrawal, school-age children