Traditional excess Gibbs energy models in terms of temperature, pressure, and concentration become progressively less effective in describing the thermodynamics of aqueous solutions at temperatures above 300 ¢ªC, and are totally inadequate in the critical region of water. This deficiency is due to the strong ion association and the large property fluctuations (such as density) with small variations in pressure, temperature, and solute concentration around the critical point of water. In this work, a speciation-based model has been developed to describe the thermodynamic properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions in the critical region of water. The anomalous fluctuation problem is avoided by adopting a residual Helmholtz energy approach in terms of temperature, density, and solute concentration. Partial ion dissociation is accounted for by including an isochoric equilibrium constant equation and a mean spherical approximation in the present model. The present model includes such classical interactions or effects as hard-sphere interactions, dipole-dipole interactions, ion dissociation effects, long-range ion-ion interactions, and a non-classical perturbation term. The related parameters that account for these effects were regressed to fit the measured values in the critical region of water. Densities, compressibility factors, apparent molar volumes, heats of dilution, and apparent isobaric molar heat capacities were used to test the validity of the model. The predicted values in this work agree well with the literature data over a wide range of temperatures (350 to 400 ¢ªC), pressures (17.5 to 40 MPa), and sodium chloride concentrations (0 to 5 mol/kg). Comparisons with other models are also included in this work. This model can be used to predict speciation, solute dissociation reaction, and many other comprehensive properties in aqueous sodium chloride solutions at near-critical conditions.



College and Department

Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Chemical Engineering



Date Submitted


Document Type





aqueous solution, critical point, Helmholtz energy, apparent molar volume, heat of dilution, apparent isobaric molar heat capacity