Continuing an investigation on using FSP to heal stress corrosion cracks (SCC) in welds on nuclear reactors, this study seeks to use AM in addition to FSP to aid crack repair. Previous studies address that current repair technology on nuclear reactors involves the use of TIG welding which can allow helium atoms to aggregate and form voids at the grain boundaries. This weakens the material and renders the repair ineffective. Another previous study evaluated the effectiveness of FSP alone in repairing SCC which did have defects depending on the parameters used during FSP. This study evaluated the use of AM in addition to FSP. Literature is available on FSP and AM separately and literature is available on technologies that used both them together. However, the current processes that are available that use both AM and FSP can be expensive and may be impractical for some purposes. This study shows a new process that is both less expensive and more practical in SCC repair. Initial proof of concept trials was performed on 1018 mild steel using both wire fed additive and insert additive technologies. A slot would be removed and filled in with an additive process and processed using FSP. Because of poor repeatability, substantial distortion, and voids present this study went forward using insert technologies in further experiments rather than wire wed additive technologies. In addition, the depth and width of the insert or area where the added material would be placed was varied in initial trails. Tensile testing was performed on initial steel trials and the stainless steel experiments and it demonstrated a correlation between depth of the added material and the tensile strength. Micro-hardness mapping performed on initial steel trials also showed hardening in the FSP stir zone. Three-point bend tests were performed to show that an existing crack underneath the FSP zone would not propagate through the nugget. All evaluations supported a substantial increase in yield strength increased after FSP.



College and Department

Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Technology



Date Submitted


Document Type





Cameron Gygi, friction stir processing, additive manufacturing, arc welding, stainless steel, tensile testing, micro-hardness mapping, crack healing, 304L



Technology Emphasis

Manufacturing Systems (MS)