Effects of Feedback Assisted Treatment on Post-Treatment Outcome for Eating Disordered Inpatients: A Follow-Up Study
Research on the effects of progress feedback and clinician problem-solving tools on patient outcome has been limited to a few clinical problems and settings (Shimowaka, Lambert & Smart, 2010). Only one randomized clinical trial has examined feedback-assisted treatment in an inpatient eating-disordered population. Results from this study suggested that those who received feedback-assisted (Fb) treatment were more likely to meet Jacobson and Truax's (1991) criteria for recovery than participants in the treatment-as-usual (TAU) condition; however, while these interventions appear to have worked well in the inpatient setting, the long-term effects of this treatment have not been investigated. This is especially pertinent in an eating disorder population, where outcomes tend to be poor and course of illness tends to be chronic. In this study, the effect of feedback interventions on long-term outcome was investigated. Fifty-three of the individuals from the aforementioned original study were contacted by mail, email, or telephone three to four years after leaving the inpatient facility to assess their current level of distress (as measured by the OQ-45) and overall psychological functioning. Comparisons were made between the outcomes of patients assigned to the experimental feedback condition and the TAU condition. Results suggested that both treatment conditions were nearly indistinguishable from one another and did not significantly differ at follow-up; however, the study was significantly underpowered. Our effect size suggested that the Fb group slightly deteriorated over time, while the TAU group slightly improved; however, effect sizes were minimal and did not meet criteria for "small" change according to Cohen's d. Patientsâ€™ Body Mass Index (BMI) largely remained the same since leaving the hospital, with a small portion deteriorating. The vast majority of women sought out multiple forms of treatment over the follow-up period, regardless of treatment condition. This is consistent with past research that suggests women with more severe pathology, and who thus require inpatient treatment, tend to experience a more chronic pattern of symptoms even after receiving intensive treatment. Overall, the superiority of feedback-assisted treatment that was found post-treatment appeared to diminish over time and was not detected at follow-up. Suggestions for further research are delineated.