The need for psychotherapy outcome research is growing in Japan as the societal demands for psychotherapy have increased in recent years. Although researchers in Japan recognize the importance of integrating clinical practice and empirical research in evaluating psychotherapy outcome, most Japanese studies to date have relied heavily on qualitative case studies (Haebara, 1997; Kanazawa, 2004; Tanno, 2001). With the help of six translators and 116 native Japanese pilot respondents, this study adapted the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ; Lambert et al., 1996), one of the most common quantitative measures of clinical outcome, for use in Japan. The translation of the original OQ into Japanese followed Beaton et al. (2000) to include forward translation, synthesis, back translation, and expert committee meetings. The study produced 4 pre-final versions, 2 pretests, and a pilot. With permission from the original questionnaire developers, a few items were modified to achieve cultural equivalence. The rigorous translation and adaptation processes, evaluated through the Translation Validity Index (Tang & Dixon, 2002) and Content Validity Index (Polit et al., 2007), sought semantic, content, and conceptual equivalence between the English and Japanese versions of the OQ. Study limitations and suggestions for further development of the Japanese OQ are discussed.
College and Department
David O. McKay School of Education; Counseling Psychology and Special Education
BYU ScholarsArchive Citation
Takara, Risa, "A Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the Japanese Version of the Outcome Questionnaire 45 (OQ)" (2012). All Theses and Dissertations. 3579.
Outcome Questionnaire 45 (OQ), psychotherapy outcome, outcome questionnaire, questionnaire translation, cultural adaptation, translation equivalence