The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using Systematic and Engaging Early Literacy (SEEL) intervention activities that incorporate digital books to teach kindergarteners to read. The study used a single-subject-multiple-baseline-across-behaviors design to compare kindergarten students' reading of comparable CVC words before and after intervention. Four students at-risk for reading difficulties were chosen for the study based on their performance on assessments and their teachers' recommendations. Students were divided into two dyads and received intervention three times a week for 25 minutes for approximately six weeks, or 18 total sessions. Baseline assessment data was collected prior to intervention, and performance on each target was monitored through the same assessment task after every intervention session. Students received SEEL instruction on one set of word targets while a comparable set was kept at baseline phase. After six intervention sessions on the first set of word targets, a second set was introduced while the first set was monitored for maintenance. Finally, a third set of target words was introduced and taught in six sessions, and the first two sets of words were monitored for maintenance. Instruction involved using meaningful and interactive activities that incorporated playful practice, multiple exposures to targets, explicit statement of the goal, and reciprocal teacher-student exchanges where students' contributions were acknowledged and incorporated into the lesson or meaning construction. After being exposed to the target words (orally and in writing), children were provided with additional opportunities to read and write the words within digital books created on the iPad.



College and Department

David O. McKay School of Education; Communication Disorders



Date Submitted


Document Type





reading, CVC words, iPad, kindergarten, single-subject design