Football violence was a rare phenomenon in France until the nineteen eighties. Harsh economic times coupled with the challenges of unemployment brought a different type of fanatic to football stadia. To vent their frustration about the economic difficulties of their time, some fans found an easy scapegoat: the increasing number of African immigrants in France. These fans, known as hooligans, have become organized and can be found supporting most major French football clubs, disrupting what once was a relatively tranquil national pastime. This thesis traces their development in France, looks at what they borrowed from Italian and English fan groups, and suggests how their organization is now uniquely French.
College and Department
Humanities; French and Italian
BYU ScholarsArchive Citation
Amado, Carlos Josue, "The Ugly Side of the Beautiful Game - Hooliganism in French Football" (2008). All Theses and Dissertations. 1556.
hooliganism, soccer, football, france, immigration, unemployment, soccer player, africa, muslim, racism, trente glorieuses, stadium, ritual, fan, fanatic, maghreb, zidane, platini, fff, champions league, fifa, uefa, world cup, Le Pen, Roland Barthes, psg, paris saint-germain, om, olympique de marseille, fc metz, lyon, olympique lyon, boulogne boys, south winners