Recent imaging studies have provided a new conceptual model of the internal structure of direct injection diesel fuel jets as well as empirical correlations predicting jet development and structure. This information was used to create a diesel cycle simulation model using C language including compression, fuel injection and combustion, and expansion processes. Empirical relationships were used to create a new mixing-limited zero-dimensional model of the diesel combustion process. During fuel injection five zones were created to model the reacting fuel jet: 1) liquid phase fuel 2) vapor phase fuel 3) rich premixed products 4) diffusion flame sheath 5) surrounding bulk gas. Temperature and composition in each zone is calculated. Composition in combusting zones was calculated using an equilibrium model that includes 21 species. Sub models for ignition delay, premixed burn duration, heat release rate, and heat transfer were also included.

Apparent heat release rate results of the model were compared with data from a constant volume combustion vessel and two single-cylinder direct injection diesel engines. The modeled heat release results included all basic features of diesel combustion. Expected trends were seen in the ignition delay and premixed burn model studies, but the model is not predictive. The rise in heat release rate due to the diffusion burn is over-predicted in all cases. The shape of the heat release rate for the constant volume chamber is well characterized by the model, as is the peak heat release rate. The shape produced for the diffusion burn in the engine cases is not correct. The injector in the combustion vessel has a single nozzle and greater distance to the wall reducing or eliminating wall effects and jet interaction effects. Interactions between jets and the use of a spray penetration correlation developed for non-reacting jets contribute to inaccuracies in the model.



College and Department

Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Mechanical Engineering



Date Submitted


Document Type





diesel engine modeling, combustion, internal combustion engines, diesel cycle, direct injection diesel fuel jets, fuel jets, fuel injection