economic origins, civilizations, complex systems


The following paper, retrieved from the archives at Dickinson College, was presented at a session on the economic origins of civilizations and on the death of civilizations, at the 1980 Annual Conference of the International Society for the Comparative Study of Civilizations, held at Syracuse University, in May 1980. A highly accomplished polymath, Arthur Iberall (1918-2002) served as an executive board member of the ISCSC as well as a long-time member and a distinguished participant in the ISCSC annual meetings. He was an expert on complex systems thinking.