identity, multiple identities, amoral familism, ethnicity, ethnic identity, civic identity, political identity/identity politics, national identity, political tribes, religious and sectarian affiliations


This paper explores the underlying, foundational politico-social theories and themes that relate closely to radicalization, terrorism, democracy and the rule of law. It examines factors (touchstones) critical to these areas (political violence, terrorism, rule of law and democracy, along with democratic institutions). Some of these touchstones include the ‘lenses’ of identities, tribalism, and contrasts between identities, including cultural, linguistic, socialization and civilizational aspects.