The purpose of this study is to analyze concepts of diversity when applied at the level of such large entities as race, ethnicity, society, nation, empire, state, and civilization as compared to groups integrated by common values and/or interests, such as castes, elites, classes, and nets. Such social ideologies as nationalism, racism, and others will also be analyzed from the point of view of their roles in the evolution of civilization. This evolution will be analyzed in the stages of Early, Colonial, Imperial, Post-Imperial, Globalizing, and Universal Civilizations, which terms will be defined in the course of this paper. Furthermore, benefits and costs of historic diversity solutions will be estimated as a base to create challenging diversity and multiculturalism-oriented policies in the 21st century. The latter will be analyzed in the context of these policies in the current nine civilizations (Western, Eastern, Japanese, Chinese, Islamic, Hindu, Buddhist, African, Global) in order to define an optimal solution (balancing assimilation and isolation tendencies) which eventually may eliminate the negatives of multiculturalism and address the concepts of state, global and world citizenships within a hybrid culture. Recommendations are offered to improve the current civilization's social dynamics. Key words: clash of people, race, ethnicity, castes, classes, elites, nets, society, nation, empire, civilization, multiculturalism, diversity, nationalism, racism, hybrid culture, global citizenship.
"The Clash of Peoples in Civilizations; A Comparative Modeling Perspective,"
Comparative Civilizations Review: Vol. 62
, Article 7.
Available at: https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/ccr/vol62/iss62/7