John K. Hord


One of the great questions in the comparative study of civilizations has been, how many civilizations are truly comparable? Are there factors which separate and differentiate civilizations so thoroughly that no comparison between them can be useful? This paper will address the problem of "the" difference between ancient and recent civilizations. It will be proposed that the major differences exist on a range of development rather than as some kind of unbridgeable gulf, and will suggest the possibility of a format for studying this range of development mathematically.