Jackson Dille

Publication Date



inequality, public policy, French Muslims, Laicite, institutional discrimination




Due in large part to its colonial past, France is home to one of Europe's largest Muslim populations-comprising nearly 9% of the country's population. Relations have not always been easy between France's Muslim and non-Muslim populations, and 42% of French Muslims reported feeling discriminated against in a 2019 study. The discrimination felt by French Muslims stems in large part from France's unique approach to secularism, called Laicite, blowback from recent terrorist attacks, and the stereotyping of Muslims in public discourse. Due to this discrimination, France's Muslim population faces increased economic disadvantages and a lack of representation across multiple levels of French society. Various efforts concerning public awareness have been initiated in different areas around the globe in an attempt to reduce discrimination against Muslims.