We summarized historic and recent fish distributions in South Dakota and analyzed fish faunal similarity at 2 spatial scales (geomorphic province and river drainage) for both historic (native) and recent (post-1990) faunas. We quantified zoogeographic patterns between geomorphic provinces and among neighboring river drainages for historic and recent faunas. We also quantified faunal change (species losses and additions) between provinces and among drainages. Ninety-seven fishes were native to South Dakota, but 111 fishes were present in recent collections because 8 native species were missing, and 22 nonnatives were present. There was high β diversity among historic and recent river drainage fish faunas, but there was between 22% and 56% faunal change between periods. Recent faunas were homogenized compared to historic faunas at both provincial and river drainage spatial scales. Patterns of nonnative species establishment were geographically distinct from patterns of native species loss. Most nonnative species additions were in cold-water or human-made habitats of the Great Plains. Most native species declines stemmed from warm water streams of the Central Lowlands and Missouri River valley. Conservation of rare and declining native species and containment of nonnatives are both necessary to preserve historical patterns of fish biodiversity in South Dakota.
Hoagstrom, Christopher W.; Wall, Steven S.; Kral, Jason G.; Blackwell, Brian G.; and Berry, Charles R. Jr.
"Zoogeographic patterns and faunal change of South Dakota fishes,"
Western North American Naturalist: Vol. 67
, Article 1.
Available at: http://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/wnan/vol67/iss2/1