Detailed surveys of aquatic invertebrates in 28 springs along the western border of the Great Basin were made using pan traps, emergence traps, black lights, and benthic sampling devices from 1994 to 1998. Although all macroinvertebrate groups were collected, caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) were sampled most intensively. Fifty-eight species of caddisflies were collected from the 28 springs, with up to 18 species from a single spring. Although several springs had very similar physicochemical characteristics, none had identical trichopteran species composition. Using Wards minimum variance clustering technique, and with all macroinvertebrates identified to the lowest possible level, we found 3 taxa assemblages. These assemblages occurred in springs with the following physical conditions: (1) warm water (15.9 °C), low elevation (1794 m); (2) cold water (8.5 °C), mid-elevation (2334 m); and (3) cold water (6.6 °C), high elevation (1794 m). Although the warm water group had a distinct assemblage of invertebrates (amphipods, gastropods, Trichoptera), distinct assemblages did not separate the 2 cold water groups. Discriminant analysis indicated that temperature, conductivity, alkalinity, and elevation were most responsible for discriminating group 1 from groups 2 and 3; temperature and elevation distinguished the latter 2 groups. Spring permanence, lack of disturbance, and cold water temperatures were the factors most responsible for explaining higher species richness of Trichoptera.
Myers, Marilyn J. and Resh, Vincent H.
"Trichoptera and other macroinvertebrates in springs of the Great Basin: species composition, richness, and distribution,"
Western North American Naturalist: Vol. 62
, Article 1.
Available at: http://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/wnan/vol62/iss1/1