Presenter/Author Information

T. Fukiharu

Keywords

greenhouse effect, general equilibrium, pigou, malthus, simulation

Start Date

1-7-2004 12:00 AM

Description

This paper uses a primitive general equilibrium (GE) model to examine variation in carbon dioxide(CO2) produced by human activity. This model consists of two goods; food and energy. Food is producedusing labor and energy, while energy is produced using labor. It is assumed that food output decreases as CO2increases. The representative household has a utility function with food and energy as variables. Thehousehold maximizes utility given an income constraint. If production and utility functions are specified byCobb-Douglas type, it is easy to compute a short-run GE, given CO2 and population. The energy, producedand consumed in this short-run GE enhances CO2, while CO2 itself decreases in the long run by thesequestration of carbon in wood and the sea. The long-run variation of CO2 is expressed by a differentialequation. First, it is assumed that population is constant. Increases of CO2 are a linear function of producedshort-run energy, and decreases are constant. The long-run process has either stability in which CO2converges to zero, or instability in which CO2 expands to infinity. In the case of instability, the policy oftaxing energy is effective in the sense that the policy can prevent the divergence. Second, it is assumed thatpopulation increases at the fixed rate. Increases of CO2 are an increasing function of produced short-runenergy. Decreases are an increasing function of CO2. A variety of simulations are conducted, some of whichshow the stability of CO2. Finally, following T.R.Malthus it is assumed that population growth decreases asfood output decreases, and vice versa. Simulation shows that the model has the final day in which populationdecreases to zero, while CO2 does not necessarily diverge to infinity. The tax on energy is shown to beeffective, in the sense that the final day can be somewhat postponed.

Share

COinS
 
Jul 1st, 12:00 AM

The Economics of Greenhouse Effect: Dynamic General EquilibriumApproach

This paper uses a primitive general equilibrium (GE) model to examine variation in carbon dioxide(CO2) produced by human activity. This model consists of two goods; food and energy. Food is producedusing labor and energy, while energy is produced using labor. It is assumed that food output decreases as CO2increases. The representative household has a utility function with food and energy as variables. Thehousehold maximizes utility given an income constraint. If production and utility functions are specified byCobb-Douglas type, it is easy to compute a short-run GE, given CO2 and population. The energy, producedand consumed in this short-run GE enhances CO2, while CO2 itself decreases in the long run by thesequestration of carbon in wood and the sea. The long-run variation of CO2 is expressed by a differentialequation. First, it is assumed that population is constant. Increases of CO2 are a linear function of producedshort-run energy, and decreases are constant. The long-run process has either stability in which CO2converges to zero, or instability in which CO2 expands to infinity. In the case of instability, the policy oftaxing energy is effective in the sense that the policy can prevent the divergence. Second, it is assumed thatpopulation increases at the fixed rate. Increases of CO2 are an increasing function of produced short-runenergy. Decreases are an increasing function of CO2. A variety of simulations are conducted, some of whichshow the stability of CO2. Finally, following T.R.Malthus it is assumed that population growth decreases asfood output decreases, and vice versa. Simulation shows that the model has the final day in which populationdecreases to zero, while CO2 does not necessarily diverge to infinity. The tax on energy is shown to beeffective, in the sense that the final day can be somewhat postponed.