Observations and excavations of thatching ant nests from 1990 to 1994 at 2560 m in Colorado provided information on the numbers and behavior of males and winged and wingless queens. Nuptial activity was compared to that reported by other investigators at lower altitudes. Reproductives were observed from 24 June to 15 August. Activity was greatest in 1993 when reproductives were on 10 of 98 mounds in the area. Mating and swarming occurred on rabbitbrush 4 m from 1 nest 2–6 July. The number of wingless queens in 4 excavated nests varied from 0 to 198.
Conway, John R.
"Nuptial, pre-, and postnuptial activity of the thatching ant, Formica obscuripes Forel, in Colorado,"
Great Basin Naturalist: Vol. 56
, Article 7.
Available at: http://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/gbn/vol56/iss1/7