Measurements taken at three-year intervals between 1977 and 1985 of channel morphology and vegetation cover between sections inside and outside a cattle exclosure showed that channels increased in depth and width on all plots. Tree canopy cover decreased significantly between 1977 and 1985, but changes in density of trees and shrubs and herbaceous cover were small. Exclusion of cattle use did not prevent channel erosion or deterioration of vegetation; rather, changes were attributed to a wildfire in the headwaters and subsequent storm events that temporarily upset the dynamic equilibrium of the stream.
Medina, Alvin L. and Martin, S. Clark
"Stream channel and vegetation changes in sections of McKnight Creek, New Mexico,"
Great Basin Naturalist: Vol. 48
, Article 10.
Available at: http://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/gbn/vol48/iss3/10