Yearly variation in numbers of cones produced by western white pine was found to affect the population level of the mountain pine cone beetle. In years when cone production is moderate to heavy, beetle populations increase. Increasing beetle populations are ultimately limited by poor cone crops, which increase competition for nutrients and oviposition sites. Variability in western white pine cone production is regarded as the most important factor regulating populations of the mountain pine cone beetle.
Jenkins, Michael J.
"Effect of western white pine cone production variability on mountain pine cone beetle population levels,"
Great Basin Naturalist: Vol. 44
, Article 12.
Available at: http://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/gbn/vol44/iss2/12