Larvae of the phalacrid beetle Phalacropsis dispar (LeConte) consumed aeciospores and the underlying sporogenous mycelium, thereby destroying the aecia of all native western pine stem rust fungi studied. Aecia of the introduced white pine blister rust fungus (Cronartium ribicola) were not found to be infested by the beetle. A close, if not obligate, biosis of the beetle apparently exists with the native rust fungi, and their geographic distributions closely coincide. Laboratory tests and field observations indicate that the beetle completes its life cycle in 30 to 40 days and apparently overwinters as an adult. Quantitative data on aeciospore inoculum destruction were beyond the means of this study; however, observations over a 12-year period evidenced widespread and extensive destruction of aeciospores. The beetle may be an effective element in the natural control of native pine stem rust fungi. Natural control by secondary organisms could significantly reduce the selective pressure for high host resistance in a naturally evolving host-parasite population.
Nelson, David L.
"Phalacropsis dispar (Coleoptera: Phalacridae), an element in the natural control of native pine stem rust fungi in the western United States,"
Great Basin Naturalist: Vol. 42
, Article 8.
Available at: http://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/gbn/vol42/iss3/8