Schizophrenia and Error Processing: A Meta Analysis
Rackham, David; Baldwin, Scott; Larson, Michael;
The error-related negativity (ERN) is a response locked Event-Related Potential component that peaks approximately 50 ms after an incorrect response. (Gehring, 1993) In a general sense the ERN seems to play a role in error detection and monitoring that occurs in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The ERN is modulated by affective variables as well as by psychopathology. It is thought that deficiencies in the internal monitoring systems of individuals with schizophrenia may be related to the expression of symptoms typical to schizophrenia. Studies of the ERN and individuals with schizophrenia have revealed significant results that support these assumptions. No work has been done to determine the overall effect of ERN amplitude and schizophrenia. This study determined the average effect size of ERN amplitude for patients with schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that a large average effect size of ERN amplitude attenuation in participants with schizophrenia would be found.