The study of prosocial behavior is growing increasingly multidimensional in the way that it considers whom is helped and how. One area of concern is the effect of gender on prosocial behavior. Is masculine behavior more physically oriented, and if so, are measures neglecting these behaviors and biasing results toward more feminine prosocial behaviors? The current study sought to answer these questions by creating and validating a new multidimensional measure of prosocial behavior that includes behaviors more common to males. An EFA was performed on a sample of 463 adolescents and emerging adults from Amazon Turk (US citizens, 16-25, 60% male, 69% Caucasian). The results indicated a three-factor solution for family that was similar across gender, but different scales for males and females for friend and stranger oriented prosocial behavior. CFA analyses were performed on a sample of 453 adolescents and emerging adults (16-21, 60% female, 61% European American) from the Flourishing Families Project. Results indicated that all five measures had good model fit and internal reliability and validity of all three factors were established. Measurement invariance as a function of gender was established for the family scale. Discussion focuses on the implications of this measure on prosocial research including higher levels of masculine prosocial behavior for multidimensional types of prosocial behavior.



College and Department

Family, Home, and Social Sciences; Marriage, Family, and Human Development



Date Submitted


Document Type





prosocial behavior, gender difference, masculinity, adolescence, emerging adulthood