The Group Questionnaire (GQ) was developed to measure group therapeutic processes-which are linked to successful prediction of patient outcome and therapeutic factors-across three qualitative dimensions (positive bond, positive work, and negative relationship) and three structural dimensions (member-leader, member-member, and member-group). The GQ model has been shown to be valid across 5 settings and 4 countries. As a clinical measure given after each session, length is of particular concern. Although shorter measures are more convenient for clients and therapists to use, fewer items necessarily means less information, a loss of psychometrics, and possible floor and ceiling effects. This study examined the effects of shortening the GQ on its clinical utility and psychometric integrity. Methods. Archival data from 7 previous studies was used, with 2,594 participants in an estimated 455 groups gathered from counseling centers, non-clinical process groups, inpatient psychiatric hospitals, outpatient psychiatric hospitals, and an inpatient state hospital. Participants answered questions from the Group Questionnaire administered during the productive working phase of a group. Analysis. Analysis was done using multilevel structural equation modeling in Mplus to account for the nested nature of groups. Items were selected using clinical judgment and statistical judgment considering inter item correlation and factor loading. Model fit was analyzed in comparison to the standards in the literature and in comparison to the full length GQ. Discussion. The revised 12 item GQ has good model fit and acceptable reliability. Further assessment is needed to determine how the reduction affects clinical utility.



College and Department

Family, Home, and Social Sciences; Psychology



Date Submitted


Document Type





group psychotherapy, feedback measure, Group Questionnaire, relationship

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Psychology Commons