An alternative pressure-sensor based method for estimating the acoustic intensity, the phase and amplitude gradient estimation (PAGE) method, is presented. This method is similar to the finite-difference p-p (FD) method, in which the intensity is estimated from pressure measurements made using an array of closely spaced microphones. The PAGE method uses the same hardware as the FD method, but does not suffer from the frequency-dependent bias inherent to the FD method. Detailed derivations of the new method and the traditional FD method are presented. Both methods are then compared using two acoustic fields: a plane wave and a three monopole system. The ability to unwrap the phase component of the PAGE method is discussed, which leads to accurate intensity estimates above previous frequency limits. The uncertainties associated with both methods of estimation are presented. It is shown that the PAGE method provides more accurate intensity estimates over a larger frequency bandwidth. The possibility of using a higher-order least-squares estimation with both methods is briefly demonstrated. A laboratory experiment designed to validate the PAGE method was conducted. The preliminary results from this experiment are presented and compared to analytical predictions. Finally, the application of the PAGE method to a static rocket test firing is presented. The PAGE method is shown to provide accurate intensity estimates at frequencies that are higher than possible with just the FD method.



College and Department

Physical and Mathematical Sciences; Physics and Astronomy



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acoustic intensity, finite-difference, rocket noise