People receiving chemotherapy not only suffer from side effects of therapeutics but also must buy expensive drugs. Targeted drug and gene delivery directed to specific tumor-cells is one way to reduce the side effect of drugs and use less amount of therapeutics. In this research, two novel liposomal nanocarriers were developed. This nanocarrier, called an eLiposome, is basically one or more emulsion droplets inside a liposome. Emulsion droplets are made of perfluorocarbons which usually have a high vapor pressure. Calcein (as a model drug) and Paclitaxel were used to demonstrate drug delivery, and plasmids and siRNA were used to exemplify gene delivery. Drugs or genes were encapsulated inside the interior of the liposomes along with emulsion droplets; targeting moieties were attached to the outside of the phospholipid bilayer. Ultrasound was used to break open the bilayer by changing the liquid emulsion droplets to gas, which released the content of the eLiposomes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to prove the formation of eLiposomes and confocal microscopy showed the uptake of drugs and genes in vitro. Cell viability was measured to show the effect of uptake in cancer cells. Results indicate that eLiposomes were successfully made and that they were endocytosed into the cell. It was observed that the emulsion and the targeting moiety in combination with ultrasound are the essential elements required to produce release from eLiposomes.



College and Department

Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Chemical Engineering



Date Submitted


Document Type





Marjan Javadi, emulsion, liposomes, eLiposomes, drug delivery, gene delivery, ultrasound, Doxorubicin, Paclitaxel, siRNA, calcein, perfluorocarbon