The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of basic multiplication mastery (0-12) and self-efficacy outcomes for elementary age students attempting to master multiplication facts in a Computer-Assisted Instructional (CAI) environment. Timez Attack (TA), a modern Internet based 3-D multiplication video game, was the computer program used in this study. Four third- and four fourth-grade classes of students at a public charter school received either 12 20-minute Teacher-Led Instructional (TLI), or TA multiplication practice sessions. Pre- and post Math Attitude Survey (MAS), timed multiplication tests, observations, and informal interviews were used to assess and compare TA and TLI's learning environments, performance, and self-efficacy outcomes. Both third- and fourth-grade TA students' level of multiplication mastery improved significantly after intervention. Results from the post-MAS also revealed significantly higher self-efficacy beliefs, and reduced nervousness in learning multiplication facts amongst some TA students. Statistical data analysis revealed no significant performance outcome differences between TLI and TA third-grade classes; however, post-test comparisons between fourth-grade TLI and TA students showed TA students significantly outperforming their comparison group counterparts by answering approximately 50% more problems in a given time and feeling significantly less nervous toward learning new multiplication math facts. The TA program's motivational, self-paced, and self-evaluative features seemed to produce a positive learning environment, which encouraged student learning. Educators should consider using CAI with features similar to TA's to improve students' academic performance and self-efficacy.



College and Department

Physical and Mathematical Sciences; Mathematics Education



Date Submitted


Document Type





multiplication, automaticity, mastery, self-efficacy, education, computer-assisted instruction, elementary mathematics, educational video games