Effective interventions are imperative for students who are at-risk for academic failure. Response to Intervention (RTI), a service delivery framework, is gaining momentum in schools as it aims to provide effective and appropriate interventions of varying degrees. Frequently used in the form of a three-tier process, RTI addresses academic and behavioral deficits for students first at a school-wide level; next, at an individualized level; and finally, at a more intense individualized level. This study examined the effects of video self-modeling (VSM) as a Tier 2 RTI for two students in general education classrooms. Both students exhibited low rates of on-task behavior and were considered at-risk for academic failure. The first participant received intervention prior to his general education first grade math lesson. The second participant received intervention prior to his general education sixth grade writing lesson. The results of the study indicate that this method of intervention has potential. In spite of uncontrollable confounding variables, both participants' average on-task behavior minimally increased (by 6 and 3 percentage points respectively) over the course of intervention. Neither student was referred for Tier 3 interventions nor was classified as having a disability. Video self-modeling as a Tier 2 intervention may provide substantial instruction for students with learning deficits, thus reducing the number of individuals referred for special education services.



College and Department

David O. McKay School of Education; Counseling Psychology and Special Education



Date Submitted


Document Type





video self-modeling, response to intervention, on-task behavior, inclusion, tier 2 intervention