Although many leaders in evaluation advise evaluators to balance the needs of the client and other stakeholders, very little is known about how or if practicing evaluators address this injunction. Understanding how practicing evaluators address the needs of multiple stakeholders could inform evaluator training. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe what practicing evaluators do when faced with conflicting stakeholder values. This study invited five evaluators to share their experiences working with multiple stakeholders while reflecting on how they deal with multiple and often conflicting values as they seek to serve the stakeholders. One implication from this study was the need for clarification of two documents covering evaluation standards: The Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation and the Guiding Principles for Evaluators. A second implication was the need for consistency among and expansion of evaluation training programs. Practical tips for evaluators included (a) selecting stakeholders with similar values, (b) working with stakeholders who shift evaluator thinking, (c) having early discussions of evaluation expectations, (d) reporting results objectively, and (e) dealing with the complex nature of conflicting values among stakeholders. The results presented in this study are intended to help evaluators better understand and thoughtfully use the many suggestions from theorists by providing concrete examples of evaluatorstakeholder interaction, specifically within the context of dealing with the conflicting values of multiple stakeholders. The results of this study may be used in curriculum development for helping evaluators in training and professional development environments.



College and Department

David O. McKay School of Education; Instructional Psychology and Technology



Date Submitted


Document Type





stakeholders, evaluation, values, standards, training