The two purposes of this study are first, to provide an evaluation of an after-school basic mathematics program at the Demonstration School for the Deaf Junior Secondary School (DemoDeaf) in Mampong-Akuapim, Ghana. Second, it provides an ecological discussion exploring why DemoDeaf students do not have access to quality education. I designed and piloted the math program in 2005 and 2007 as an action researcher and volunteer with the Non-Government Organization (NGO), Signs of Hope International. The program was developed after finding six students in one JSS class could not count to one-hundred and all other students struggled with addition and/or subtraction. The program has been shown quantitatively and qualitatively to have statistically significant and positive effects on DemoDeaf students. In 2007, the number of students proficient in counting increased from thirty-four to forty-four. An analysis of the addition achievement test results indicate students advanced a total of twenty-nine levels; four students learned to add single-digit numbers together, eleven students learned how to add double-digit numbers together, and fourteen students learned how to add triple-digit numbers together. An analysis of the subtraction achievement tests indicate students advanced a total of nineteen levels; six students learned to subtract single-digit numbers, eight students learned how to subtract double-digit numbers, and five students learned how to subtract with triple-digit numbers. Sample-t-tests showed that the increase of students proficient in counting, addition, or subtraction (except for triple-digit subtraction) was statistically significant at the p-value of < .01 or < .05. The stigma and negative stereotypes embedded in the normative culture in Ghana and the majority/minority relations and power dynamics between hearing and deaf groups influence the socializing institutions of the family and deaf schools. The normative hearing culture influences the language choice parents/guardians give their deaf child and how they treat them. The perspectives and values of hearing educators and administrators influence deaf school design and create a hidden curriculum for deaf students. These separate forces meet in the classroom and not only prevent students from receiving a quality secular education, they also reinforce the low status ascription of deaf students in Ghana.



College and Department

Family, Home, and Social Sciences; Sociology



Date Submitted


Document Type





Deaf Studies, Ghana, Deaf in Ghana, Deaf Education, Deaf Education in Ghana, Deaf minority, hearing majority, math skills, math, low math achievement, Sociology of Deaf Education, Sociology of Education, education in developing countries, Deaf education in developing countries, Special Education in Ghana, linguistic minority, Deaf linguistic minority, hearing-world

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Sociology Commons