While the beneficial effects of psychotherapy have been well documented, the fact remains that 5 to 10 percent of clients get worse while in treatment (Lambert & Ogles, 2004) and a large minority of patients show little response (Hansen, Lambert, & Forman, 2003). The effects of four interventions, aimed at reducing deterioration and enhancing positive outcomes were examined in an Immediate Electronic Feedback sample of 1101 patients whose outcome was contrasted across experimental groups and with two archival groups: the Week-Delayed Feedback group, consisting of archival data from 1374 patients and the treatment-as-usual control group consisting of archival data from 1445 patients. Results indicate that feedback to therapists improved outcome across clients, especially for signal-alarm cases. Therapist feedback effects were enhanced by the use of manually based Clinical Support Tools, but not by providing direct feedback to clients about their progress. There were no significant differences in outcome between the Week-Delayed CST feedback and the 2-Week-Delayed CST feedback groups; however, clients in the Week-Delayed CST feedback condition, attended 3 less sessions, on average, than their 2-Week-Delayed CST feedback counterparts. Furthermore, a significantly greater number of people in the Week-Delayed CST Feedback group ended treatment in the Recovered/Improved classification of the Jacobson/Truax model.



College and Department

Family, Home, and Social Sciences; Psychology



Date Submitted


Document Type





Deterioration, Patient-Focused Research, Quality Assurance, Quality Management, Outcome Management, Patient Profiling, Feedback, Decision Tree

Included in

Psychology Commons