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Authors

Toby Huff

Abstract

The current president of the Association and noted scholar in the foundations of modern science discusses the evolution of distinct civilization with stress on Islamic and Chinese civilizations. The article covers three encounters that have occurred in history between different civilizations. The first encounter was between Byzantium and the Islamic World in the 9th and 10th century; the second was the interaction between the West and Islam in the 12th century, and the third was between European missionaries and China after 1400. His conclusion is that despite cross-pollination in various areas, the basic features of the Islamic and Chines cultures have continued due in part to the fundamentals being established before contact.